COVID-19 Vaccine Misinformation Super-spreaders

Misinformation about development of a COVID-19 vaccine spreads widely on Facebook

by Kendrick McDonald, John Gregory, Sophia Tewa, Virginia Padovese, and Marie Richter


Editor’s Note: After publication of this report, the two posts listed below from Activist Post were taken down from Facebook.


As COVID-19 continues to ravage countries around the world, researchers and scientists are racing to produce a vaccine that would protect against the virus’ spread. However, on social media platforms like Facebook, myths and falsehoods about vaccines generally — and about the COVID-19 vaccine specifically — threaten to limit the impact of such a vaccine, by sowing doubt and mistrust among millions of users, according to a new analysis by NewsGuard.

In this report, we catalogue 34 Facebook Pages that are “super-spreaders” of misinformation about the development of a COVID-19 vaccine. The sites named in this report — all of which have a history of sharing misinformation about vaccines in general — have large Facebook audiences, most with more than 100,000 likes per page and a total of 14,139,288 likes.

Note: With the publication of this report on our website, we are simultaneously making this information available in a report to the World Health Organization, with whom we have a partnership under which we share our information with this international organization dedicated to fighting healthcare disinformation.

The following posts contain inaccuracies and unsubstantiated allegations about the safety and effects of any future COVID-19 vaccine as well as vaccines in general.

This comes as public confidence in vaccines is falling. A September 2020 Pew Research poll found that 49 percent of Americans “definitely or probably would not get vaccinated at this time” against COVID-19. “Intent to get a COVID-19 vaccine has fallen from 72% in May, a 21 percentage point drop,” according to the same poll. By comparison, a June 2020 study published in the European Journal of Health Economics found that 7.2 percent of participants from Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Portugal, the Netherlands, and the U.K. said that they would not get vaccinated against COVID-19 if a vaccine became available.

For most of the false or misleading posts that we identified, Facebook did not provide any warning, fact-checking language, or links to more credible sources. Five out of 69 posts reviewed by NewsGuard as of October 26 did have notices from third-party fact-checking organizations. However, some claims that did receive fact-checking notices did not carry any warnings when they were made by other Facebook Pages, or in different news stories.

For example, the page Coconut Health, which is part of the NewsGuard Red-rated pseudoscience Health Impact News network, published a post on May 17, 2020, that falsely claimed that a COVID-19 vaccine would “genetically modify” humans. The post included a fact-check from Reuters explaining that the information was false. However, three months later, the page continued to use this false talking point in its larger anti-vaccine agenda, and did not receive a fact-checking notice.

On Aug. 3, 2020, the page posted a link to a story that falsely claimed that the “banking and corporate powerful and the government are the drivers of this fake pandemic, and are also working together to vaccinate the world.” The story also said that these forces may use genetic engineering and tracking technology in “new Covid vaccine and vaccination mandates.”

None of these claims are true, and they had all been debunked many times by time of the Aug. 3 Coconut Health post.

The first U.S. super-spreader on our list, which is associated with the conspiracy-oriented website World Truth TV, posted the same link — which included the false claim that the vaccine would contain a microchip — in more than 100 posts in a six-month period. It shared another link 12 times in one month. In both cases, the page repeatedly exposed its audience of nearly 1.7 million Facebook users to misinformation about a COVID-19 vaccine.

In Italy, NewsGuard discovered a network of seven Facebook Pages that all shared links, including about COVID-19 vaccine misinformation, exclusively from the same website, Oltre.tv. The seven pages have a total of 1,509,414 Page Likes, and only one discloses a connection to the website.

Eight of the Facebook Pages listed below were previously identified by NewsGuard as COVID-19 Misinformation Super-spreaders, unrelated to vaccines. They have continued to share misinformation to their substantial audiences. In fact, three of these sites have seen an increase in Page Likes since NewsGuard’s earlier report, published in April 2020.

Methodology and Data Set

To qualify as Super-spreaders, Facebook Pages had to meet three simple criteria:

  • In the U.S., the U.K., France, and Italy, they have more than 100,000 page likes on Facebook, or are part of a network with at least one page of that size. In Germany, they have more than 40,000 page likes on Facebook.
  • They have posted clearly and egregiously false content about a COVID vaccine
  • They were active as of October 26, 2020. In other words, Facebook had not acted to remove them prior to our publication of this data.

Our analysts derived this list in part by tracing which Facebook Pages had linked to false stories on websites from our COVID-19 misinformation tracker. This data was supplemented with additional research and reporting.

Two caveats regarding what is a work in progress: These Facebook Pages may not be the most frequent offenders or be the publishers of false COVID-19 misinformation with the largest audiences. The examples we list for each page do not necessarily represent an exhaustive list of all the times the page published COVID-19 misinformation.

Click here to download the dataset in spreadsheet form. If you are aware of another account that meets these criteria, please report it here and our team will review it.

Scroll down for a list of some of the most egregious examples of vaccine misinformation “Super-spreaders” we’ve found so far.


U.S. COVID-19 Vaccine Misinformation Super-Spreaders

WorldTruth.TV

1,683,036 Facebook page likes

The Facebook Page of WorldTruth.tv, a NewsGuard Red-rated website that publishes conspiracy theories about health and politics.

Examples of vaccine misinformation:

  • 125 separate posts from April to September 2020 of an article falsely claiming that a COVID-19 vaccine would use “microchips” as part of a “global tracking system.”
  • 12 separate posts in August 2020 linking to an article that falsely claims that a COVID-19 vaccine would “alter” human DNA.
WorldTruth.tv repeatedly posts the same links with misinformation.

NewsGuard emailed an address listed on the page seeking comment on the above posts but did not receive a response.


The Truth About Cancer

Previous COVID-19 Misinformation Super-spreader

1,140,726 Facebook page likes

A Facebook Page that has published misinformation about vaccines and other health topics.

Examples of vaccine misinformation:

  • A Sept. 3, 2020, post suggesting that efforts to combat the spread of COVID-19 were “obedience training” and linking to an article falsely stating that the flu vaccine would increase your risk of developing COVID-19.
  • A June 13, 2020, post linking to an article falsely stating that Bill Gates will use the COVID-19 vaccine to surveil people. A Facebook label warned readers that independent fact-checkers found the content to be “false.”

NewsGuard emailed an address listed on the page seeking comment on the above posts and received a response from a customer service representative that did not address the posts.


EnVolve

684,972 Facebook page likes

The Facebook Page of a conservative news site that has published false claims and unsubstantiated conspiracy theories about U.S. politics, as well as the COVID-19 pandemic

Examples of vaccine misinformation:

  • A June 16, 2020, post linking to an article that falsely claims that legislation in Colorado that would force parents who refuse to give their children a COVID-19 vaccine into a government-run re-education program. The bill, which was signed into law later in June, does not make any reference to COVID-19 or a COVID-19 vaccine, although it would require parents to watch an online video about vaccine science before obtaining a nonmedical vaccine exemption for their children.
  • An April 21, 2020, post linking to an article that falsely claims that Dr. Anthony Fauci, the director of the U.S. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), will personally profit from a COVID-19 vaccine.

NewsGuard emailed Aaron Smith, the owner of EnVolve, seeking comment on the above posts, but did not receive a response.


GreenMedInfo.com

539,008  Facebook page likes

The Facebook page of a NewsGuard Red-rated pseudoscience website that has published false “alternative” health information, including “natural” cures for COVID-19 and cancer.

Examples of vaccine misinformation:

  • An Aug. 20, 2020, video post containing false information about vaccines, including a claim that a COVID-19 vaccine could change your DNA.
  • An April 14, 2020, post linking to an article that falsely claims that a COVID-19 vaccine would use a “microchip.”

NewsGuard emailed an address listed on the page seeking comment on the above posts, but did not receive a response.


Activist Post

Previous COVID-19 Misinformation Super-spreader

516,870 Facebook page likes

The Facebook Page of Activist Post, a NewsGuard Red-rated site that has frequently published debunked conspiracy theories.

Examples of vaccine misinformation:

  • A June 20, 2020, post linking to an article that falsely claims that a COVID-19 vaccine will alter your DNA.
  • An April 20, 2020, post linking to an article that falsely claims that a COVID-19 vaccine would include a “microchip.”

NewsGuard emailed an address listed on the page seeking comment on the above posts, but did not receive a response.


Dr. Christiane Northrup

480,840 Facebook page likes

The Facebook page of a Maine gynecologist who was regularly featured as a health expert on “The Oprah Winfrey Show” and has promoted false claims about the vaccine for human papillomavirus (HPV). The page is verified by Facebook, which the company says “means that Facebook confirmed that this is the authentic Page or profile for this public figure, media company or brand.”

Examples of vaccine misinformation:

  • A June 27, 2020, post falsely claiming that potential COVID-19 vaccines are not being tested against a placebo in clinical trials.
With her verified Page, Dr. Northrup has shared vaccine misinformation to hundreds of thousands of Facebook users even before COVID-19.
  • A June 9, 2020, post linking to an article falsely claiming that a COVID-19 vaccine would alter your DNA.

NewsGuard emailed Diane Grover, Dr. Christiane Northrup’s business manager, seeking comment on the above posts, but did not receive a response.


Coconut Health

308,713 Facebook page likes

A Facebook Page affiliated with Health Impact News, a News network of websites that has published false information about health topics.

Examples of vaccine misinformation:

  • An Aug. 3, 2020, post linking to an article falsely claiming that a COVID-19 vaccine would alter your DNA, that it will use tracking technology, and that the COVID-19 pandemic is fake.
  • An April 15, 2020, post linking to an article falsely claiming that a COVID-19 vaccine would include a “microchip.”

NewsGuard emailed Brian Shilhavy, owner of the Health Impact News network that operates Coconut Health, seeking comment on the above posts, but did not receive a response.


Dr. Tenpenny on Vaccines and Current Events

233,41 Facebook page likes

The Facebook Page of Dr. Sherri Tenpenny, a noted anti-vaccine activist.

Examples of vaccine misinformation:

  • A Sept. 12, 2020, post linking to an article falsely reporting that a COVID-19 vaccine would alter your DNA and make you “transhuman.”
  • A July 29, 2020, post with a link to a video interview in which Tenpenny states that a COVID-19 vaccine may “encode” the virus with “various things” that can be activated later, such as 5G technology.

NewsGuard emailed an address listed on the page seeking comment on the above posts, but did not receive a response.


National Vaccine Information Center

Previous COVID-19 Misinformation Super-spreader

217,058 Facebook page likes

A Facebook Page associated with the NVIC.org, the NewsGuard Red-rated website of the nonprofit National Vaccine Information Center, which has published articles containing false and unsubstantiated claims about vaccinations.

Examples of vaccine misinformation

  • A Sept. 15, 2020, post linking to an article that falsely claims that a COVID-19 vaccine would alter your DNA and make you “transhuman.”
  • A June 9, 2020, post linking to an article falsely claiming that a COVID-19 vaccine would alter your DNA.

NewsGuard emailed an address listed on the page seeking comment on the above posts, but did not receive a response.


Vaccination Information Network (VINE)

157,470 Facebook page likes

A Facebook page with anti-vaccination content run from the U.S. and 10 other countries, including Australia, Hungary, Norway, Sri Lanka.

Examples of vaccine misinformation:

  • An Aug. 27, 2020, post, made from Australia, linking to an article suggesting that efforts to combat the spread of COVID-19 were “obedience training” and falsely stating that the flu vaccine increases the risk of developing COVID-19.
  • An April 15, 2020, post, made from Hungary, linking to a story falsely claiming that a COVID-19 vaccine would include a “microchip.”

NewsGuard emailed an address from VaccineInformationNetwork.com seeking comment on the above posts, but did not receive a response.


Now The End Begins

Previous COVID-19 Misinformation Super-spreader

150,334 Facebook page likes

A Facebook Page affiliated with NowTheEndBegins.com, a NewsGuard Red-rated website that connects news stories to Biblical prophecies that has published false stories on a variety of topics.

Examples of vaccine misinformation:

  • A July 4, 2020, post linking to a story that falsely claims that a COVID-19 vaccine would include a “microchip.”
  • A May 12, 2020, post linking to a story that falsely claims that a COVID-19 vaccine would include a “microchip.”

NewsGuard emailed an address listed on the page seeking comment on the above posts, but did not receive a response.


Stop Mandatory Vaccination

142,971 Facebook page likes

A Facebook Page run from the U.S. and the Philippines with anti-vaccine posts affiliated with the NewsGuard Red-rated site StopMandatoryVaccination.com.

Examples of vaccine misinformation:

  • A July 24, 2020, post linking to a story that falsely claims that a COVID-19 vaccine would alter your DNA.
  • A March 26, 2020, post linking to a story that falsely claims that the flu vaccine increases the risk of developing COVID-19. A Facebook label warned readers that independent fact-checkers found the content to be “false.”

NewsGuard emailed Larry Cook, owner of Stop Mandatory Vaccination, seeking comment on the above posts, but did not receive a response.


U.K. COVID-19 Vaccine Misinformation Super-Spreaders

Energy Therapy

Previous COVID-19 Misinformation Super-spreader

1,961,077 Facebook page likes

A Facebook Page associated with the NewsGuard Red-rated site EnergyTherapy.biz sharing content related to organic health and philosophy.

Examples of vaccine misinformation:

  • A Sept. 21, 2020, post linking to an article that falsely claims that a COVID-19 vaccine will alter your DNA.
Energy Therapy uses alternative characters to refer to “COVID vaccine” in a post with misinformation.
  • A June 27,2020, post linking to an article that falsely claims that a COVID-19 vaccine would alter your DNA.

NewsGuard emailed Jennifer Tanna, one of the owners of Energy Therapy, seeking comment on the above posts, but did not receive a response.


London Real

564,620 Facebook page likes

A Facebook Page associated with the NewsGuard Red-rated video website FreedomPlatform.tv, which has produced videos and interviews promoting false claims about the COVID-19 pandemic and various conspiracies.

Examples of vaccine misinformation:

  • A July 30, 2020, post linking to a video interview of anti-vaccine activist Dr. Sherri Tenpenny, who falsely claimed that the coronavirus was “caused by a bad strain of flu vaccine that was circulating between 2013 and 2015.”
  • A May 8, 2020, post linking to a video interview with anti-vaccine activist Judy Mikovits, creator of the discredited “Plandemic” conspiracy documentary, which included false claims that getting a flu vaccine will increase your risk of developing COVID-19. Facebook added a warning label to the post, stating that independent fact-checkers checked the content and reviewed it as “false.”

NewsGuard emailed a general address for the London Real website seeking comment on the above posts but did not receive a response.


French COVID-19 Vaccine Misinformation Super-Spreaders

Santé Nutrition

1,029,040 Facebook page likes

The Facebook page of Sante-Nutrition.org, a NewsGuard Red-rated site that regularly promotes false and misleading health stories, including misinformation about vaccines.

Examples of vaccine misinformation:

  • Nine posts published between April and October 2020 linking to a Sante-Nutrition.org article (republished from NewsGuard Red-rated site French.Mercola.com) that falsely claimed the flu vaccine could increase the risk of contracting the coronavirus.
This Sante-Nutrition article included misinformation about the flu vaccine and COVID-19 with no warning.
  • An Aug. 23, 2020, post linking to a Sante-Nutrition.org article that featured a YouTube video with false COVID-19 claims, including that “when you will be given the mandatory vaccine, which is a chip, you will be connected to artificial intelligence, this sort of enormous cloud created to dominate you, and then we’ll all be slaves.”

Santé Nutrition did not respond to two Facebook messages seeking comment.


La vérité sur notre monde

822,067 Facebook page likes

A Facebook page managed anonymously from Tunisia that appears to be associated with LesMoutonsRebelles.com, a NewsGuard Red-rated site that regularly spreads conspiracy theories.

Examples of vaccine misinformation:

  • An April 12, 2020, post linking to a LesMoutonsRebelles.com article (republished from NewsGuard Red-rated French site Geopolintel.fr) that falsely claimed that Bill Gates will use microchip implants and “digital certificates” to find out who has been tested and vaccinated against the coronavirus.
  • A May 13, 2020, post linking to a LesMoutonsRebelles.com article (republished from Chilean news site ElCiudadano.com) that cited anti-vaccine advocate Robert Kennedy Jr. and falsely claimed that Bill Gates is involved in a conspiracy to control the COVID-19 vaccine market — and the vaccine market writ large — in order to control the planet.

La vérité sur notre monde did not respond to two Facebook messages seeking comment.


S’informer autrement

Previous COVID-19 Misinformation Super-spreader

226,667 Facebook page likes

A Facebook page created in 2018 that appears to be run by French conspiracy theorist Johann Fakra and that claims to offer “Alternative news that’s different from what the mainstream media hammers home.”

Examples of vaccine misinformation:

  • An Aug. 15, 2020, post that claimed the COVID-19 vaccine was developed years ago, with the aim of modifying people’s DNA and sterilizing the population.
  • An Aug. 10, 2020, post (reposted from Johann Fakra’s own Facebook account), in which Fakra falsely claimed that the COVID-19 vaccine contains toxic products and would come with an implanted identification chip.

S’informer autrement did not respond to two Facebook messages seeking comment.


Réseau International

Previous COVID-19 Misinformation Super-spreader

156,470 Facebook page likes

The Facebook page of the NewsGuard Red-rated site ReseauInternational.net, a popular French source of conspiracy theories that is frequently cited on social media and on sites spreading deceptive information.

Examples of vaccine misinformation:

  • An Aug. 21, 2020, post linking to a ReseauInternational article and YouTube video that promoted the claim that a Microsoft vaccine for COVID-19 would track people using nanoparticles and 5G technology. Although the video was later removed by YouTube for violating its Terms of Service, the site also provided a Google Drive link as a back-up for readers.
  • An April 12, 2020, post linking to a ReseauInternational.net article (republished from Geopolintel.fr) that falsely claimed that Bill Gates will use microchip implants to track those who have been vaccinated against the COVID-19 virus.

Réseau International did not respond to two emails seeking comment.


Ce que vous Cachent les Médias

153,021 Facebook page likes

A Facebook page created in 2013 that regularly shares unverified social media posts and is run by administrators in France, Algeria, Morocco, and Jordan, according to its Page Transparency section. Its About section states: “Journalists don’t believe the lies of politicians (whispered by the Zionist lobby), but they repeat them, which is worse!”

Examples of vaccine misinformation:

  • A July 6, 2020, post linking to a YouTube video produced by NewsGuard Red-rated, Switzerland-based site KLA.tv, which falsely claimed the COVID-19 vaccine was developed before the pandemic and is meant to be forcibly administered to millions of people, without proper testing.
  • A May 8, 2020, post linking to an article on the NewsGuard Red-rated site Fawkes-News.com, which falsely claimed that Bill Gates offered a bribe to speed up the passing of a bill in Nigeria that would mandate vaccination against COVID-19.

Ce que vous Cachent les Médias did not respond to two Facebook messages seeking comment.


L’Eveilleur Quantique

114,546 Facebook page likes

The Facebook page of the nonprofit Inform’Action, based in Toulouse, France, which says that it “selects and publishes, in a collaborative manner, the best information, by promoting ideas and points of view that are not covered enough.”

Examples of vaccine misinformation:

  • An April 29, 2020, post linking to Geopolintel.fr article that falsely claimed that Bill Gates will launch “human-implantable capsules that have ‘digital certificates’ which can show who has been tested for the coronavirus and who has been vaccinated against it.”
  • An Aug. 22, 2020, post featuring a YouTube video that falsely claimed Bill Gates’ COVID-19 vaccine will permanently alter a person’s DNA. A Facebook label warned readers that independent fact-checkers found the content to be “false.”

In a phone interview with NewsGuard in October 2020, Akina Schira, president of the nonprofit Inform’Action, maintained that the claim made in the first post was true. “Nanoparticles in vaccines, it’s official… It’s a technology that was implemented and developed by the economic sector without the approval of the people.”

Asked about the second post, Schira told NewsGuard: “Yes, [the vaccine] genetically modifies cells so it’s genetic modification.” He also took issue with Facebook’s warning label, saying “Facebook will say that we published fake news, when Facebook and Mark Zuckerberg are concretely the same actors that we denounce at the citizen level… Companies like Facebook that have rolled out fact-checking have simply set up this fact checking tool, not because they are sincere, simply because they want to keep their position of domination.”


Esprits Inspiration

502,148 Facebook page likes

A Facebook page created in 2015 that sells clothing and promotes a variety of memes, news, and nature posts. Its About section says: “The important thing is not to convince, but to provide food for thought.”

Examples of vaccine misinformation:

  • An Aug. 27, 2020, post showing a letter that it falsely claimed would allow parents to refuse to have their children receive vaccines in school, including against COVID-19, as well as COVID-19 diagnostic tests. A Facebook label warned readers that independent fact-checkers found the content to be “false.”
  • An April 30, 2020, post (translated from an article on the U.S. anti-vaccine, NewsGuard Red-rated site ChildrensHealthDefense.org), which falsely claims that Bill Gates planned to use the pandemic to force “his ‘dictatorial’ vaccine programs on all American children – and adults.”

Esprits Inspiration did not respond to two emails seeking comment.


Vraie Pharmacie

160,302 Facebook page likes

A Facebook page that primarily shares content from the NewsGuard Red-rated health site Sante-Nutrition.org. The page does not provide any information about its mission, except for a statement on its About section saying “The real pharmacy is in nature.”

Examples of vaccine misinformation:

  • Seven 2020 posts linking to a Sante-Nutrition.org article (republished from NewsGuard Red-rated site French.Mercola.com) that falsely claims that the flu vaccine could increase the risk of contracting the coronavirus.
  • An Aug. 24, 2020, post linking to a Sante-Nutrition.org article that features a YouTube video with false COVID-19 claims, including that “when you will be given the mandatory vaccine, which is a chip, you will be connected to artificial intelligence, this sort of enormous cloud created to dominate you, and then we’ll all be slaves.” 

Vraie Pharmacie did not respond to two Facebook messages seeking comment.


Italian COVID-19 Vaccine Misinformation Super-Spreaders

Oltre.TV Network

All the following Facebook pages regularly share content published by NewsGuard Red-rated site Oltre.tv. None of these pages appear to be sharing content from any other site than Oltre.Tv. None of these pages, except for Oltre.tv’s official Facebook page, explain any association with Oltre.tv. Oltre.tv is a NewsGuard Red-rated website that has spread misinformation about vaccines and immigration. These seven pages reached more than 1.5 million followers.

Informare x Resistere

1,056,750 Facebook page likes

Launched in July 2009, the page is associated with NewsGuard Red-rated site InformareXResistere.fr, a conservative site that has promoted conspiracy theories and pseudoscientific claims. The site published only seven articles in 2020, most recently on April 2, 2020. Informare x Resistere’s Facebook page stopped sharing links from InformareXResistere.fr website in June 2019. The page is primarily sharing links from NewsGuard Red-rated site Oltre.tv from June 2019 on (almost all its posts share Oltre.tv’s articles).

Examples of vaccine misinformation:

  • An Aug. 29, 2020, post linking to an article published on Oltre.tv that falsely claims that “a study by the U.S. Department of Defense confirmed that the increase in the probability of contracting the coronavirus is 36% higher for those who got the flu vaccine.”
  • A June 23, 2020, post linking to an article published on Oltre.tv containing an interview with Italian psychiatrist Alessandro Meluzzi (whose Twitter account was found by NewsGuard to be a COVID-19 misinformation super-spreaders), stating: “For vaccines there is Bill Gates, a nerdy psychopath who hopes to make vaccines by putting a microchip, controlled by 5G satellites, to transform us into robots”. The page shared this article five times between June 23 and Sept. 18, 2020.

Informare X Resistere’s Facebook page did not respond to a message sent to the email address listed on the page.


Lo Sai

128,584 Facebook page likes

A page created in July 2017 that regularly shares content from Oltre.tv. The Information section describes the page as a “personal blog” but does not identify whose blog it is.

Examples of vaccine misinformation:

  • An Aug. 29, 2020, post linking to an article published on Oltre.tv that falsely claims that “a study by the US Department of Defense confirmed that the increase in the probability of contracting the coronavirus is 36% higher in who got the flu vaccine”.
  • A June 23, 2020, post linking to an article published on Oltre.tv containing an interview with Italian psychiatrist Alessandro Meluzzi (whose Twitter account is considered by NewsGuard a COVID-19 misinformation super-spreaders), stating: “For vaccines there is Bill Gates, a nerdy psychopath who hopes to make vaccines by putting a microchip, controlled by 5G satellites, to transform us into robots.” The page shared this article five times between June 23, 2020, and Sept. 18, 2020.

Lo Sai Facebook page did not respond to a message sent to the email address listed on the Facebook page inquiring about the posts listed above.


Salute e Alimentazione

121,980 Facebook page likes

A page created in June 2011 that regularly shares content from Oltre.tv. The Information section describes the page as a ‘health and wellbeing page’.

Examples of vaccine misinformation:

  • An Aug. 29, 2020, post linking to an article published on Oltre.tv that falsely claims that “a study by the US Department of Defense confirmed that the increase in the probability of contracting the coronavirus is 36% higher in who got the flu vaccine”.
  • A June 28, 2020, post linking to an article published on Oltre.tv containing an interview with Italian psychiatrist Alessandro Meluzzi (whose Twitter account is considered by NewsGuard a COVID-19 misinformation super-spreaders), stating: “For vaccines there is Bill Gates, a nerdy psychopath who hopes to make vaccines by putting a microchip, controlled by 5G satellites, to transform us into robots”.

Salute e Alimentazione Facebook page did not respond to a message sent to the email address listed on the Facebook page inquiring about the posts listed above.


Adoro ascoltare le bugie quando conosco la verità

75,744 Facebook page likes

A page created in January 2010 that regularly shares content from Oltre.tv. The Information section describes the page as an ‘entertainment’ page.

Examples of vaccine misinformation:

  • An Aug. 29, 2020, post linking to an article published on Oltre.tv that falsely claims that “a study by the US Department of Defense confirmed that the increase in the probability of contracting the coronavirus is 36% higher in who got the flu vaccine”.
  • A June 23, 2020, post linking to an article published on Oltre.tv containing an interview with Italian psychiatrist Alessandro Meluzzi (whose Twitter account is considered by NewsGuard a COVID-19 misinformation super-spreaders), stating: “For vaccines there is Bill Gates, a nerdy psychopath who hopes to make vaccines by putting a microchip, controlled by 5G satellites, to transform us into robots”.

Adoro ascoltare le buglie quando conosco la verità Facebook page did not respond to a message sent to the email address listed on the Facebook page inquiring about the posts listed above.


Manipolazione mediatica

59,941 Facebook page likes

A page created in January 2012 that regularly shares content from Oltre.tv. The Information section describes the page as ‘how the media manipulate public opinion’.

Examples of vaccine misinformation:

  • An Aug. 29, 2020, post linking to an article published on Oltre.tv that falsely claims that “a study by the US Department of Defense confirmed that the increase in the probability of contracting the coronavirus is 36% higher in who got the flu vaccine”.
  • A June 23, 2020, post linking to an article published on Oltre.tv containing an interview with Italian psychiatrist Alessandro Meluzzi (whose Twitter account is considered by NewsGuard a COVID-19 misinformation super-spreaders), stating: “For vaccines there is Bill Gates, a nerdy psychopath who hopes to make vaccines by putting a microchip, controlled by 5G satellites, to transform us into robots”. The page shared this article 5 times between June 23 and September 18.

Manipolazione mediatica Facebook page did not respond to a message sent to the email address listed on the Facebook page inquiring about the posts listed above.


Oltre.tv

34,698 Facebook page likes

The Facebook page for Oltre.tv site, created in May 2019.The page states: “Oltre.tv is an independent and non-partisan site that brings together many authors with different passions, all linked by a common interest: the love for correct information”.

Examples of vaccine misinformation:

  • An Aug. 29, 2020, post linking to an article published on Oltre.tv that falsely claims that “a study by the US Department of Defense confirmed that the increase in the probability of contracting the coronavirus is 36% higher in who got the flu vaccine”.
  • A June 23, 2020, post linking to an article published on Oltre.tv containing an interview with Italian psychiatrist Alessandro Meluzzi (whose Twitter account is considered by NewsGuard a COVID-19 misinformation super-spreaders), stating: “For vaccines there is Bill Gates, a nerdy psychopath who hopes to make vaccines by putting a microchip, controlled by 5G satellites, to transform us into robots”.

Oltre.tv Facebook page did not respond to a message sent to the email address listed on the Facebook page inquiring about the posts listed above.


Lo sai?

31,717 Facebook page likes

A page created in April 2018 that regularly shares content from Oltre.tv. The Information section describes the page as ‘dealing with symbology, Freemasonry and all secret societies’.

Examples of vaccine misinformation:

  • An Aug. 29, 2020, post linking to an article published on Oltre.tv that falsely claims that “a study by the US Department of Defense confirmed that the increase in the probability of contracting the coronavirus is 36% higher in who got the flu vaccine”.
  • A June 23, 2020, post linking to an article published on Oltre.tv containing an interview with Italian psychiatrist Alessandro Meluzzi (whose Twitter account is considered by NewsGuard a COVID-19 misinformation super-spreaders), stating: “For vaccines there is Bill Gates, a nerdy psychopath who hopes to make vaccines by putting a microchip, controlled by 5G satellites, to transform us into robots”.

Lo sai? Facebook page did not respond to a message sent to the email address listed on the Facebook page inquiring about the posts listed above.


AmbienteBio

391,234 Facebook page likes

The Facebook page for the NewsGuard Red-rated site AmbienteBio.it, created in May 2011 and described as “an information resource that addresses issues related to a healthy and virtuous lifestyle in every sense. It includes a philosophy that requires “small steps backwards” compared to a post-industrial civilization, based on the myth of unlimited growth, to instead aim for a return to natural resources, a defense of the biosphere also thanks to new technologies”. The page has shared false and misleading content about COVID-19 pandemic.

Examples of vaccine misinformation:

  • A March 24, 2020, post linking to an article published onAmbienteBio.it that falsely claims that “Bill Gates announced that he will implant microchips to fight COVID-19 and to track vaccinations”.
  • An Aug. 31, 2020, post falsely claiming that “The flu shot aggravates COVID-19”.

AmbienteBio Facebook page did not respond to a message sent to the email address listed on the Facebook page inquiring about the posts listed above.


German COVID-19 Vaccine Misinformation Super-Spreaders

Zeitzumaufwachen

61,560 Facebook page likes

Launched in February 2013 in Germany, the page is associated with an online blog with the same name, Zeitzumaufwachen (Timetowakeup). The Facebook page publishes news articles, videos, and photos that often support U.S. President Donald Trump and question established medical practices.  

Examples of vaccine misinformation:

  • A July 20, 2020, post linking to an article that falsely claims that the German government was planning a “Corona mass vaccination,” and that mRNA vaccines alter people’s genes.
  • A June 15, 2020, post linking to an article that falsely claims that planned corona vaccines would alter people’s genes.

A representative of Zeitzumaufwachen told NewsGuard in an email: “We are a small group of 5 private individuals who take up current topics and present them for discussion to our readers. We also put the veracity up for discussion to get other opinions. We therefore do not see ourselves in a position to permanently check the veracity of the shared content for the publicly accepted correctness of it. Particularly with changing factual situations, from official sources, we are currently facing a difficult task. At the time of publication of the two posts you mentioned, we could not identify any misinformation in them.”


AUGEN AUF

Previous COVID-19 Misinformation Super-spreader

58,183 Facebook page likes

A German-language page that covers health and world news and is managed from Austria, according to Facebook. The page was created in October 2013 and posts links, memes, photos, and videos.

Examples of vaccine misinformation:

  • A June 17, 2020, post linking to an article that falsely claims that symptoms of the COVID-19 virus are caused by vaccines and 5G technology.
  • A May 29, 2020, post linking to an article that falsely claims that a coronavirus vaccine would cause autoimmune diseases and alter people’s DNA.
  • A May 29, 2020, post linking to an article that falsely claims that a vaccine developed by Bill Gates would alter people’s DNA.

AUGEN AUF did not respond to a Facebook message inquiring about the posts listed above.


TTIP – Aktionsbündnis – Österreich

57,922 Facebook page likes

A German-language page managed from Austria that is connected to the site NPR.News.eulu.info that was established in opposition to several EU trade agreements, and has published numerous conspiracy theories, including about 9/11 and COVID-19. The Facebook page was launched in July 2014.The Facebook Page of WorldTruth.tv, a NewsGuard Red-rated website that publishes conspiracy theories about health and politics.

Examples of vaccine misinformation:

  • An Aug. 1, 2020, post linking to an article that falsely claims that a vaccine developed by the biotech firm Moderna and supported by Bill Gates and Anthony Fauci would alter people’s DNA.
  • A May 17, 2020, post linking to an article that falsely claims that Bill Gates plans to implement mandatory vaccinations with microchips.

TTIP – Aktionsbündnis – Österreich did not respond to a Facebook message inquiring about the posts listed above.


Watergate.tv

47,005 Facebook page likes

Germany-based and launched in July 2016, the page is associated with the right-wing, Eurosceptic, and anti-Merkel NewsGuard Red-rated website Watergate.tv that covers German and international politics. The Facebook page mainly shares articles from that site.A Facebook Page that has published misinformation about vaccines and other health topics.

Examples of vaccine misinformation:

  • A July 23, 2020, post linking to an article that falsely claims that a coronavirus vaccine would alter people’s DNA.
  • A July 20, 2018, post linking to an article that falsely claims that unvaccinated children are healthier than vaccinated ones and that vaccines contain “glyphosate, formaldehyde, aluminum and cells from aborted fetuses and kidney cells from African monkeys.”

Watergate.tv did not respond to a Facebook message inquiring about the posts listed above.


Corrections: In an earlier version of this report, NewsGuard included data in the introduction that did not accurately reflect what was reported in the list of pages. NewsGuard has updated the number of pages, posts, fact-checked posts, and total followers as a result. Additionally, the number of pages previously identified by NewsGuard as COVID-19 misinformation super-spreaders is eight, not ten, as the report previously stated. The report also included an incorrect date for an August 2020 post from the page Vraie Pharmacie. It was published on August 24. NewsGuard apologizes for the errors.